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  • Levantinism as a process that began from the twighlight of the Turkish empire prior to the Napoleonic invasion of Egypt.

    It took the form of copying European dress, learning French, accepting the European structure of the military including ranks and sports, including European Fencing!!, architecture, and many other elements. It made colonization that much the easier, since all Europeans were now termed Effendi, an honorific formerly given only real VIPs.

    It expressed a real and deep sense of inferiority vs the west, at the root of much of the world's problems with the extreme versions of Islam.

    January 2, 2012