from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. The process of producing vocal sound by the vibration of the vocal folds that is in turn modified by the resonance of the vocal tract.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. The act or process by which articulate sounds are uttered; the utterance of articulate sounds; articulate speech.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. The act of phonating; emission of vocal sounds; production of tone with the vocal cords.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. the sound made by the vibration of vocal folds modified by the resonance of the vocal tract
Sorry, no etymologies found.
Creaky voice also called laryngealisation, pulse phonation or, in singing, vocal fry or glottal fry, is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact, and forming a large, irregularly vibrating mass.
They have an air sac that may function as a buoyancy device, for air storage during diving, or for "phonation" (Kelly 1988).
Using sophisticated examinations, the researchers found that the obese individuals exhibited several distinct modifications in voice feature, including hoarseness, murmuring, vocal instability, altered jitter and shimmer, and reduced maximum phonation times as well the presence of voice strangulation at the end of emission.
And it can also result in some other types of anomalies including cleft lip or palate, abnormalities of speech or phonation, and in some patients, even development of learning differences or learning difficulties.
I find this implausible and unnecessary2 and I have already settled on laryngealization ie. creaky phonation, with derivative word-internal pre-laryngealization, as a superior alternative to wholesale preglottalization in all environments.
As a recap, I had come to a couple of major revelations on PIE that diverge from the "mainstream" but problematic view:One: The unlikely phonological system can finally be rationalized by turning palatal stops to plain ones and plain stops to uvular ones while shifting phonation to a contrast between creaky and plain voice rather than plain versus breathy.
Keep in mind that in my phonological model of PIE, only traditionally "breathy voiced" stops exhibit uninterrupted voicing throughout the phoneme while "plain stops" are reinterpreted with marked phonation, creaky voice ie. interrupted voice.
As regional bilingualism would eventually lead to a single dominant dialect, it seems to me that this would produce new Late IE dialects in those regions located outside of the "Late IE epicenter" within which breathy stops or vowels were replaced with locally more familiar modal phonation ie. substratal influence.
Speech and singing involve four major functions: breathing, phonation, resonance and articulation.
So it's as simple as this: Breathy phonation is necessarily a post-IE feature.