In Canada, petroleum products have been extracted from "oil sands" or "tar sands." . . .
The oil sands yield bitumen, a highly viscous form of petroleum that is produced by surface mining or by in situ recovery. Surface mining is preferred for deposits within 75 m of the surface. In situ recovery, in which steam is injected to mobilize bitumen underground, is used for deeper deposits . . .
After separation from the host rock, bitumen is modified for transport. Commonly, it is combined with lower-density hydrocarbon mixtures (condensates, synthetic crude, or a mixture of both) to obtain a product with an acceptable viscosity and density for transport to refineries via pipeline. This engineered fluid is referred to as diluted bitumen. Common names refer to subtypes (e.g., dilbit, synbit, railbit, and dilsynbit) but, for simplicity, the term diluted bitumen as used in this report encompasses all bitumen blends that have been mixed with lighter products.