from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. See cowpox.
- n. The usually mild, cutaneous and sometimes systemic reaction in individuals who have been inoculated with smallpox vaccine.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. An infection of cowpox; or the virus which causes this infection
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. Cowpox; vaccina. See cowpox.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A specific eruptive disease occurring in cattle, especially in milch cows.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. a viral disease of cattle causing a mild skin disease affecting the udder; formerly used to inoculate humans against smallpox
- n. a local infection induced in humans by inoculation with the virus causing cowpox in order to confer resistance to smallpox; normally lasts three weeks and leaves a pitted scar
(The smallpox vaccine is based on a live virus called vaccinia, which is closely related to the smallpox virus and protects against it, but normally does not cause disease itself.)
And in the past, when bandages weren't as effective, and the cleaning of hospital linens not as stringent as they are today, the transmission of vaccinia from the vaccine to others wasn't rampant:
"The vaccine is not smallpox virus, but it's a closely related virus called vaccinia," she added.
However, a virus called vaccinia spreads four times faster than what was thought possible.
The inoculation of man with the contents of such a vesicle produces a mild form of disease known as vaccinia, which protects the individual from smallpox.
The version used to eradicate smallpox worldwide was based on a different, but closely related, pox virus called vaccinia, according to Jonathan Tucker, a biosecurity expert and author of "Scourge: The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox" Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001.
Researchers used the same strain of virus that's used in the smallpox vaccine, called vaccinia virus, because of its natural ability to replicate itself in cancer cells, the report said.
Previously, viruses were thought to spread by entering a cell, replicating there, and then being released to infect new cells, so that the rate of spread of a called vaccinia spreads in a different and much faster way, according to a new study in the journal
Smallpox vaccines are made from vaccinia, a milder related virus.
In collaboration with my colleague Jörg Schlehofer, we were also able to demonstrate that herpes simplex virus, but also other herpes -, adeno -, and vaccinia virus infections of polyoma - or papillomavirus DNA harbouring cells, resulted in amplification of the DNA of the latter.