from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- adj. Foreign to the body or to living organisms. Used of chemical compounds.
- n. A xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- adj. Of or pertaining to xenobiosis.
- adj. Relating to a substance foreign to the body or ecological system.
- n. Any foreign compound not produced by an organism's metabolism
Bacteria respond to a xenobiotic by recruiting exogenous genes to establish a pathway to degrade the xenobiotic, which is necessary for their adaptation and survival.
Epub ahead of print "Biological definition of multiple chemical sensitivity from redox state and cytokine profiling and not from polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes."
[Epub ahead of print] "Biological definition of multiple chemical sensitivity from redox state and cytokine profiling and not from polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes."
They're switching over to the name Xe (like in the words xenophobia or xenobiotic, which fittingly refers to a chemical substance that is foreign and usually harmful to living organisms).
Thus, reduction reactions frequently result in activation of a xenobiotic rather than detoxification.
Since the liver is the primary site for biotransformation, it is also potentially quite vulnerable to the toxic action of a xenobiotic that is activated to a more toxic compound.
A threshold for toxic effects occurs at the point where the body's ability to detoxify a xenobiotic or repair toxic injury has been exceeded.
The plasma level of a xenobiotic is important since it generally reflects the concentration of the toxicant at the site of action.
At low doses, a xenobiotic may follow a biotransformation pathway that detoxifies the substance.
Glucuronidation is a high-capacity pathway for xenobiotic conjugation.