from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition.
- noun The enzyme complex in yeasts that catalyzes the breakdown of sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
from The Century Dictionary.
- noun Same as
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English.
- noun (Physiol. Chem.) A soluble ferment, or enzyme. See
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
- noun biochemistry Any of a group of
enzymesthat catalyzesthe fermentationof simple carbohydratesto ethanoland carbon dioxide.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- noun a complex of enzymes that cause glycolysis; originally found in yeast but also present in higher organisms
Sorry, no etymologies found.
Harden had shown in 1906 that fermentation requires a dialysable substance, called co-zymase, which is not destroyed by heat.
Buchner assumed in the yeast juice the presence of a uniform ferment or enzyme, known as "zymase".
Buchner's experiments showed unequivocally that fermentation is a catalytic process caused by the action of enzymes, as had been suggested by Berzelius for all life processes, and Buchner called his extract zymase
Harden and Young also demonstrated that the process stops before all sugar (glucose) has been used up, but it starts again on addition of inorganic phosphate, and they suggested that hexose phosphates are formed in the early steps of fermentation. von Euler had done important work on the structure of co-zymase, shown to be nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, earlier called DPN).
Eduard Buchner (18601917) discovered that zymase, a cell-free yeast extract, caused fermentation, thus resolving a long-standing controversy over vital and inorganic ferments.
This phosphate afterwards undergoes a mutation in the presence of co-zymase, inasmuch as a glucose diphosphate and an active glucose are formed, after which the latter yields the necessary material for the subsequent stages of the fermentation.
Harden explained this by saying that a high-molecular enzyme, the zymase proper, was left on the filter, which let through a low-molecular complementary enzyme, which for the sake of brevity was called co-enzyme or co-zymase.
This demonstration of the part of mutase played by the co-zymase, or in other words of the identity of co-zymase and co-mutase, is of fundamental importance, for it has fully revealed the central position in the process of fermentation of the complementary enzyme in question.
The researches of von Euler and his pupils have further led to the concentration of the co-zymase and to a far more exact study of its properties than had been previously possible.
The production of a co-zymase with a high activity has also shown in a brilliant manner the character of that enzyme as a specific activator.