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Still, Egypt has never signed the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) or the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which it always links rhetorically to Israel's undisclosed nuclear weapons capabilities.
Geoffrey Holland from the University Sussex claims “the United States breached the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) by supplying warfare-related biological materials to Iraq during the 1980s, at a time when that nation was at war with its neighbour, Iran.”
The work of the Texas universities, like that of approximately 400 other Federally-funded labs across the nation, may involve pathogens that could possibly be used for offensive germ warfare, banned by the 1972 Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention (BTWC), which the U.S. signed.
"We also welcome the ongoing debate on nuclear disarmament and has been steadfast in the support of the only two non-discriminatory treaties banning weapons of mass destruction -- the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention (BTWC)," he added.
For instance, during the general debate at the First Committee of the 64th United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), Egyptian Ambassador Maged Abdulaziz reiterated that the obstacle that prevents Egypt from acceding to the CWC, BTWC, "or even ratification of the CTBT," remains Israel's defiance to calls aimed at convincing it to join the NPT.
In recent years, Africa has also seen a significant increase in ratifications to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and even though the OAU and AU have been less active in promoting such treaties as the CWC and BTWC over the years, signatures and ratifications have continued to trickle in.
NON-PROLIFERATION: Pakistan, Biological Weapons and the BTWC (Pakistan Security Research Unit)
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