Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- An order of the class Insecta, founded by Linnæus in 1742, embracing a vast number of insects of diverse forms apparently not very closely related in structure, widely different in mode of life, and collectively known as bugs. The metamorphosis is incomplete, except in the male coccids and related forms. The molt is usually repeated four times, the stage next to the last, preceding the imago, being called
pupa. There are four, or two, or no wings in different cases, and rarely halteres. The thoracic segments are either free or fused. The head is free or broadly united to the thorax, with or without faceted eyes. The essential characters of the order are found in the mouth-parts and associate modifications of the head and sternum, and in the wings. The mouth-organs are usually suctorial, the sucking-tube or haustellum being composed (in the higher forms) of two lateral half-channels or semicylindric pieces homologous with the labium and labial palpi. Thus the mouth-parts consist of a jointed tapering tube, arising from the front of the nnder side of the head, and inclosing four stiff bristles, which replace the mandibles and maxillæ, this whole rostrum being adapted both for piercing and for sucking. There is no sucking stomach. The modifications of the sternum are such as fit it to support the head and characteristic rostrum. In the largest group of Hemiptera the wings are thick and leathery at the base and membranous at the end. The tarsi are generally three- or two-jointed, rarely having only one joint. Most hemipterous insects feed on plant-juices or the blood of insects or animals, including man, but a few live on the moisture which collects under decaying bark, and certain of the higher forms subsist indifferently upon sap or blood. The Hemiptera have more than once been separated into several different orders, but most entomologists continue to accept the order in its original broad sense, dividing it into several suborders. Three of these universally recognized are Heteroptera, the true bugs; Homoptera, the bark-lice, plant-lice, scale-insects, leafhoppers, cicadas, etc.; and Parasita, the true lice. About 27,000 species are catalogued, and it is estimated that at least 50,000 exist. The Hemiptera thus outnumber far the Orthoptera and Neuroptera, and possibly the Lepidoptera. Formerly also called Ryngota, Siphonata, and Dermaptera (in part).
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. (Zoöl.) An order of hexapod insects having a jointed proboscis, including four sharp stylets (mandibles and maxillæ), for piercing. In many of the species (Heteroptera) the front wings are partially coriaceous, and different from the others.
- n. plant bugs; bedbugs; some true bugs; also includes suborders Heteroptera (true bugs) and Homoptera (e.g., aphids, plant lice and cicadas)
“A cicada is an insect of the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha.”
“Effects of temperature elevation on a field population of '' Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum '' (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Spitsbergen.”
“In Finland, 14 species, mostly beetles (Coleoptera) and bugs (Hemiptera), associated with burnt areas in forests are threatened with extinction .”
“Dominant insect groups include Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Cantharidae, Coccinellidae, Miridae and Orthoptera that are distributed in the arid/dry steppe.”
“The dominant groups of insects are the Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, and the Diptera (Chironomideae).”
“The scattered angiosperms here and in the foothills supported some host-specific herbivores with associated predators; they were also exploited (especially after exceptional rains) by a number of Orthoptera, Hemiptera, and Lepidoptera derived from migratory African populations and perhaps reinforced at intervals by additional groups of colonists.”
“As its name implied, it was not a beetle (order Coleoptera), but a bug (order Hemiptera) in the family Miridae.”
“The orders Orthoptera and Hemiptera are particularly numerous; as likewise is the stinging division of the Hymenoptera; the bees, perhaps, being excepted.”
“Bowers (1976) discovered that extracts from the plant Ageratum houstonianum cause premature metamorphosis in some Hemiptera.”
“The Hemiptera contain one semi-parasitic species which has attained a”
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