from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. Used formerly as a title for the monarch of Iran.
- n. Used formerly as a title for the sultan of Turkey.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. a ruler of a Muslim country or state
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. Chief ruler; monarch; sovereign; -- a title of the Sultan of Turkey, and of the Shah of Persia.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. Great king; emperor: a title given by the Turks to the Sultan, and by extension to various European monarchs.
Persian pādshāh : Old Persian pati-, master; see poti- in Indo-European roots + Persian shāh, king; see shah.(American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
From Persian پادشاه (pâdešâh, pâdšâh), Middle Persian pātaxšāh. (Wiktionary)