from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. A monistic approach to philosophy in which all reality is held to consist of one substance, usually termed God or Nature, of which minds and bodies are both attributes.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- proper n. The philosophical doctrine of Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) and his followers.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. The form of Pantheism taught by Benedict Spinoza, that there is but one substance, or infinite essence, in the universe, of which the so-called material and spiritual beings and phenomena are only modes, and that one this one substance is God.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. The metaphysical doctrine of Baruch (afterward Benedict) de Spinoza (1632—1677), a Spanish Jew, born at Amsterdam.
But if "Spinozism," as it is called, is but a stage of development there is something in Spinoza which can be superseded as little as the
The controversy goes in the literature under the name of the Spinozism or the Pantheism Dispute.
Some critics, including Arnauld, had charged Malebranche with Spinozism because he claimed God has the idea of intelligible extension.
He shared the view expressed by More, Pascal, Bayle, and Leibniz that Descartes 'system could be, and had been, used to further irreligion and had naturally developed into Spinozism.
The charge of Spinozism reappears in Malebranche's 1713-14 correspondence with one of his former students,
That is, Leibniz found himself desperately trying to come up with an argument that showed that his own philosophy was not threatened by the spectre of Spinozism, but his philosophical commitments, especially those concerning the nature of God, meant his options were limited.
*Spinozism, a form of pantheism which states that nature is a kind of god and that we can never know the divine essence.
The result is a Spinozism minus substance, a purely modal or differential universe.
The charge of Spinozism would continue to haunt Malebranche throughout his career and was developed with even greater zeal by a former student named Dortuous de Mairan toward the end of his life.
It seems to me that the ramparts of Spinozism might be beaten down on a side which Bayle has neglected.
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