“For instance, in the case of atovaquone, a clinical study showed that about one in a trillion cells had spontaneous resistance.”
“These include chloroquine, mefloquine (Lariam), atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone), quinine, and doxycycline artemisin derivatives, which are not licensed for use in the United States but are often found overseas.”
“Common antimalarial drugs include atovaquone/proguanil, doxycycline and mefloquine.”
“Frequency of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum: a nonsynergistic combination of 5-fluoroorotate and atovaquone suppresses in vitro resistance.”
“A relatively new drug, atovaquone, which interfered with a different step in P. falciparum metabolism, can be countered by a single amino acid mutation in a protein called cytochrome b.3 The very latest drug, artemisinin, is derived from the Chinese sweet wormwood plant.”
“Resistance to one recent drug, atovaquone, arose in the lab scant weeks after a small culture of malaria was exposed to it.”
“For instance, in the case of atovaquone, a clinical study showed that about one in a trillion cells had spontaneous resistance.15 In another experiment it was shown that a single amino acid mutation, causing a change at position number 268 in a single protein, was enough to make P. falciparum resistant to the drug.”
“Resistance to a second drug atovaquone was about one in a hundred thousand.”
“Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum, cytochrome b that are associated with atovaquone resistance are located at a putative drug-binding site.”
“Spontaneous resistance to atovaquone can be found in roughly every third sick person.17 Spontaneous resistance to chloroquine can be found perhaps in every billionth sick person, and since there are usually close to a billion sick people on the planet every year or so, that means chloroquine resistance is usually waiting to be found in at least one person, somewhere in the world, at any given time.”
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