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- n. Any carbocation
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Olah found that there are two groups of carbocations, the trivalent ones called carbenium ions, in which the positive carbon atom is surrounded by three atoms, and those in which the positive carbon is surrounded by five atoms, called carbonium ions.
In the first stage the carbon-chlorine bond is split, and a short-lived carbenium ion is obtained.
The spectra accorded completely with Winstein's symmetrical bridged structure, with a pentacoordinated carbon (Figure la) and not with a rapidly equilibrating carbenium ion.
Brown on the other hand concluded that the norbornyl cation was a tri-coordinated cation (carbenium ion) that rapidly rearranged into an identical tri-coordinated ion in which the positive charge had moved to another carbon.
(carbenium ions) in such high concentrations and of such long life spans that, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
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