American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. A very black topsoil, rich in humus, typical of cool to temperate semiarid regions, such as the grasslands of European Russia.
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. The local name of a black earth of extraordinary fertility, covering at least 100,000,000 acres, from the Carpathian to the Ural mountains, to the depth of from 4 to 20 feet, and yielding an almost unlimited succession of similar crops without preparation. It consists chiefly of silica with a little alumina, lime, and oxid of iron, and about 7 per cent. of vegetable mold, of which 2.45 is nitrogen gas. The nitrogen and other organic matter are no doubt the cause of its fertility.
- From Russian чернозём (černozjóm), "black soil", letter "ё" is usually written as "е" in Russian, more accurately transliterated as "chernozyom", also cf. Черноземье (Černozémʹje) where "ё" is changed to "е". (Wiktionary)
- Russian chernozëm : chërnyĭ, black + Old Russian zemĭ, earth; see dhghem- in Indo-European roots. (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
“Composition also includes a high mesophyl umbellate (Peucedanum morisonii) on chernozem soils with microphyllous deciduous woods (Betula pendula, Populus tremula).”
“Typical soils are chernozem (black soil) and chestnut (brown) soils, although they accumulate less humus than the same type of soils to the north and to the west.”
“The zonal soil type is chernozem, and other common types are solod and solonchak.”
“Here sturdy farmers, well versed in the ancient traditions of the countryside, raised Jersey cattle, plump black-and-white Hampshire hogs, rugged Clydesdales and poultry of the best breed The experts might also have selected that rare and rich band of black chernozem that stretched across southern Russia, especially in the Ukraine.”
“Ukraine could regain its position as a global breadbasket, realising the huge agricultural potential of its famous chernozem (black earth), one of the most fertile soils in the world.”
“Water consumption Phaseolus vulgaris conditions irrigation leached chernozem soil Suceava”
“Fertilization of sugar beet and winter wheat grown on calcareous chernozem soil in Stavropol 'Province”
“Even though such warm, relatively moist phases usually lasted only a few hundred years, and started out from the skeletal loess desert/semi-desert soils of glacial conditions (with which they are inter-leaved), these buried steppe soils have all the rich organic content of a present-day chernozem soil that has had many thousands of years to build up its carbon (E. Zelikson, Russian Academy of Sciences, pers. comm.,”
“GOLD: The humus content of chernozem gives it an ability to retain moisture that makes it ideal for Russia has tens of millions of hectares of it "The surge in”
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