Definitions
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License
 n. A theoretical scalar field (analogous to the photon)
 n. A particle, associated with gravity, in string theory
Etymologies
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Examples

A quantum fluctuation may break this master group so that this dilaton freezes out this symmetry at different length scales.
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I think the interiors of black holes are dual to a condensate phase of gauge fields, such as gluon plasmas probed at RHIC, and that these objects are determined by a dilaton field to contain information for an AdS (AntideSitter) spacetime and its conformal infinity.

There is a whole lot more I could go on about this, such as the role of conformal groups and dilaton fields, or with zeta functions, and ….

This is for a spin 0 particle, such as the Higgs field or su (4) dilaton.

\Lambda~ = ~\Lambda (\phi, ~ {\dot\phi}) and this scalar field is probably somehow related to the dilaton field of the current eternal inflation.

Please tell me if I recall correctly that linear dilaton backgrounds are conformally flat spacetimes, with a special choice of dilaton field linearly related to the time coordinate?

However, there are linear dilaton backgrounds where problem of obtaining postive vacuum energy was solved.

I believe that linear dilaton backgrounds and noncritical string theory are one and the same.

The reason for the UV sensitivity in the simple toroidal model is the suppression of the dilaton Fterm F_s which contributes to the treelevel gaugino mass.

The classic example is a linear dilaton …. i.e. a spacetime field generated by the string, the “dilaton”, has a nontrivial dependence (linear in this case) on just one direction in spacetime … .. the rather singles out that direction as being rather special as compared to the others, a possiblity not allowed for in the critical string constructions.
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