Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- A phylum or subkingdom of metazoic animals; the echinoderms. They represent one of the most distinct types of the animal kingdom, agreeing with cœlenterates in having a radiate or actinomeric arrangement of parts, usually pentamerous or by fives or tens, a digestive canal, a water-vascular or ambulacral apparatus, a true blood-vascular system, and the integument indurated by calcareous deposits, as either granules, spicules, or hard plates forming a shell. The alimentary canal is distinct from the general body-cavity; there is a deuterostomatous oral orifice or mouth, and usually an anus. The sexes are mostly distinct. The species undergo metamorphosis; the free-swimming ciliated embryo is known as a pluteus, in some cases as an echinopædium (see cut under
echinopædium); the adult form is usually assumed by a complicated kind of secondary development from the larval form, which is mostly bilateral. The Echinodermata were so named by Klein in 1734, and in Cuvier's system were the first class of his Radiata; they are still sometimes reduced to a class with the Cælenterata. As a subkingdom they are divisible into four classes: Crinoidea, Echinoidea, Asteroidea, and Holothurioidea, or the crinoids, sea-urchins, starfishes, and seacucumbers. As a class they are sometimes divided directly into seven orders: Echinoidea (sea-urchins), Asteroidea (starfishes), Ophiuroidea (sand-stars and brittle-stars), Crinoidea (feather-stars), Cystoidea (extinct), Blastoidea (extinct), and Holothurioidea (sea-cucumbers). All are marine. Also Echinoderma.
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. (Zoöl.) One of the grand divisions of the animal kingdom. By many writers it was formerly included in the Radiata.
- n. radially symmetrical marine invertebrates including e.g. starfish and sea urchins and sea cucumbers
“It was then further discovered -- Steinmann finds an illustration of this fact in the echinodermata -- that the well-known”
“His study of the lower animals resulted in the discovery of alternate generations and in a satisfactory account of the metamorphoses of echinodermata.”
“The advanced work at the Central Imperial College was in the closest touch with living interests and current controversies; it drew its illustrations and material from Russell's two great researches -- upon the relation of the brachiopods to the echinodermata, and upon the secondary and tertiary mammalian and pseudo-mammalian factors in the free larval forms of various marine organisms.”
“As Darwin remarks, "the marine inhabitants of the Eastern and Western shores of South America are very distinct; with extremely few shells, crustacea, or echinodermata in common.”
“There is little in the character of the _echinodermata_ to call for special notice.”
“Peach,  a private in the mounted guard (preventive service), stationed on the southern coast of Cornwall, who has made several interesting discoveries on the outer confines of the animal kingdom, that have added considerably to the list of our British zoöphites and echinodermata.”
“In other words, compared to the phylum before it (echinodermata), what makes choradata evolutionarily superior?”
“real phylo-genetic problem of the mollusks," and "the origin of the echinodermata.”
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