from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. Either of two closely related pentapeptides having opiate qualities and occurring in the brain, spinal cord, and other parts of the body.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. Any of a group of pentapeptide endorphins that have opiate-like effects
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. an endorphin having opiate qualities that occurs in the brain and spinal cord and elsewhere
The principal objection came from Hughes and Kosterlitz, who preferred the term enkephalin.
Although the effects of alcohol and TIQs on the brain appear to be similar to that of enkephalin, that is, they activate opiate receptors, it is probable that other neurotransmitters and other receptors are involved as well.
The activating enzymes are members of a class called enkephalin convertase.
One of the milestones in the history of neuroscience research was the discovery of 'enkephalin' by John Hughes and Hans Kosterlitz.
William Frey II, a biochemist at the St Paul-Ramsey Medical Center in Minneapolis, found that tears aren't just salt water; they contain leucine enkephalin, an endorphin that modulates pain, and hormones such as prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone, released at times of stress.
Increasing of the enkephalin supply by direct administration of enkephalins reduces voluntary alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring animals.
Some work that I had done with Maurice Hirst suggested that alcohol or TIQs bind preferentially to enkephalin receptors rather than morphine receptors.
We then sacrificed the remaining alcohol-free animals—10 from Jackson, and 10 from Simonson—and checked the level of methionine enkephalin in whole brain samples.
Protecting enkephalin supplies by preventing their destruction by enkephalinase reduces voluntary alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring animals.
The alcohol-drinking Jackson animals had significantly less enkephalin in the brain than the Simonson animals.27
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