Definitions
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
 n. A particle, such as an electron, proton, or neutron, having halfintegral spin and obeying statistical rules requiring that not more than one in a set of identical particles may occupy a particular quantum state.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License
 n. A particle with totally antisymmetric composite quantum states, which means it must obey the Pauli exclusion principle and FermiDirac statistics. They have halfinteger spin. Among them are many elementary particles, most derived from quarks. Compare boson.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
 n. any particle that obeys FermiDirac statistcs and is subject to the Pauli exclusion principle.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
 n. any particle that obeys FermiDirac statistics and is subject to the Pauli exclusion principle
Etymologies
Examples

At low energies the Higgs gets a vacuum expectation value, and acts like a mass term, converting the lefthanded fermion into a righthanded fermion, which is what you want.

The paper laid the basis for describing one of the two categories of the elementary particles that make up an atom  one was boson, and the other came to be known as fermion, after the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi.

Assuming that this is no error, then the term "fermion" is ambiguous between elementary particle and composite particle.

The phase here is between a heavy fermion and light fermions in an antiferromagnetic state.

The existence of the superpartner to the Higgs and the fermion field at about the same mass scale results in the cancellation of these divergences.

So a Higgs field that couples to the fermion field f and its conjugate fbar according to an interaction term in the Lagrangian ~ fbarHf, will carry the Higgs divergence as well.

It think these internal fermion degrees of freedom behave as Landau electrons around a quantum critical point.
Einstein Still Rules, Says Fermi Telescope Team  Universe Today

Also, one assumes the duality accounts for the discrete spectrum of possible fermion rest masses (perhaps corresponding to a discrete spectrum of possible closed black hole assemblies?)

The mass scale characterizing each KaluzaKlein tower can be chosen independently for each species of scalar, fermion, or gauge boson.

In that language there is no fermion propagator and no Higgs insertion  the effect of the Higgs has been summed into our definition of the massive fermion.
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