Definitions

from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  • n. A plural of fungus.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

  • n. Plural form of fungus.

from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • n.pl. A group of thallophytic plant-like organisms of low organization, destitute of chlorophyll, in which reproduction is mainly accomplished by means of asexual spores, which are produced in a great variety of ways, though sexual reproduction is known to occur in certain Phycomycetes, or so-called algal fungi. They include the molds, mildews, rusts, smuts, mushrooms, toadstools, puff balls, and the allies of each. In the two-kingdom classification system they were classed with the plants, but in the modern five-kingdom classification, they are not classed as plants, but are classed in their own separate kingdom fungi, which includes the phyla Zygomycota (including simple fungi such as bread molds), Ascomycota (including the yeasts), Basidiomycota (including the mushrooms, smuts, and rusts), and Deuteromycota (the fungi imperfecti). Some of the forms, such as the yeasts, appear as single-celled microorganisms, but all of the fungi are are eukaryotic, thus distinguishing them from the prokaryotic microorganisms of the kingdon Monera.

from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • Recent investigations have added much to the knowledge of the life-histories and relationships of this large group of plants. The term, as commonly used to include the slime-molds and bacteria as well as the fungi proper, does not signify a natural group. The present tendency is to restrict its use to the Eumycetes (true fungi). The cytological studies of Harper and others confirm the opinion that the rusts (Uredinales) are most closely related to the Basidiomycetes, while the researches of Thaxter have shown the existence of what appears to be a new order, the Myxobacteriales, showing characters of both Myxomycetes and bacteria. Various recent systematic arrangements of the fungi have been proposed, notably those of Brefeld, Schröter, Saccardo, and Bugler and Prantl. These classifications differ chiefly in the terminology used, the relative rank given to different groups, and the position assigned to certain orders of more or less doubtful relationship. The sporological system of Saccardo, used in his “Sylloge Fungorum” as a basis for the division of the larger groups of the Pyrenomycetes, Discomycetes, and Fungi Imperfecti, is very convenient but artificial. The following arrangement is based upon that given in Engler's “Syllabus.” The termination of the ordinal names is that at present adopted and has been used by Underwood. The lichens have been added to the classes of fungi to which they belong. Class I. Myxomycetes: orders Acrasiales, Plasmodiophorales, Myxogastrales, Myxobacteriales. Class II. Schizomycetes: orders Eubacteriales, Thiobacteriales. Eumycetes (true fungi): Class III. Archimycetes: order Chytridiales. Class IV. Zygomycetes: orders Mucorales. Entomophthorales. Class V. Oömycetes: orders Saprolegniales, Peronosporales. Class VI. Ascomycetes: orders Protonnycetales, Saccharomycetales, Exoascales, Aspergillales, Perisporiales, Hypacreales, Dothideales, Sphæriales. Laboulbeniales, Tuberales, Hysteriales, Phacdiales, Pezizales, Helvellales. Subclass Ascolichenes: orders Parmeliales, Lecideales, Graphidales, Caliciales, Verrucariales. Fungi Imperfecti: orders Sphæropsidales, Melanconiales, Moniliales. Class VII. Basidiomycetes: subclass Hemibasidii — order Ustilayinales; subclass Protobasidii — orders Uredinales, Auriculariales, Tremellales, Dacryomycetales, Exobasidiales, Agaricales, Phallales, Hymenogastrales, Lycoperdales, Nidulariales, Sclerodermatales. Subclass Hymenolichenes.
  • n. One of the lowest of the great groups of cellular cryptogams.

from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.

  • n. the taxonomic kingdom including yeast, molds, smuts, mushrooms, and toadstools; distinct from the green plants

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