“If the urine is acidic, the weak acids (such as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates) are less ionized and undergo reabsorption with renal excretion reduced.”
“Excretion of bisphenol A-glucuronide into the small intestine and deconjugation in the cecum of the rat.”
“At normal doses, approximately 96% of acetaminophen is biotransformed to non-toxic metabolites by sulfate and glucuronide conjugation.”
“The primary Phase II reactions are: glucuronide conjugation - most important reaction sulfate conjugation - important reaction acetylation amino acid conjugation glutathione conjugation methylation”
“The glucuronide conjugation of aniline is illustrated below:”
“With 7-10 times the recommended therapeutic level, the sulphate and glucuronide conjugation pathways become saturated and more of the toxic metabolite is formed.”
“The glucuronide conjugates are generally quite hydrophilic and are excreted by the kidney or bile, depending on the size of the conjugate.”
“However, enzymes in the intestinal flora are capable of hydrolyzing some glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, which can release the less-polar compounds that may then be reabsorbed.”
“The preparation using human liver microsomes converted BPA to the glucuronide metabolite at a significantly lower rate than did the rat microsomes.”
“In contrast, lorazepam and oxazepam are excreted unconjugated, or as the glucuronide, and have a half-life of 12 to 18 hours.”
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