Definitions

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

  • adj. hypertonic
  • adj. Of or pertaining to hyperosmolarity

from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • Produced by or inducing increased rapidity of osmosis.

Etymologies

hyper- +‎ osmotic (Wiktionary)

Examples

  • Wang XT, Cai H, Leung SW, Guggino SE (2007) Characterization of endogenous betaine gamma-amino-n-butyric acid cotransporter glycoform and its hyperosmotic regulation in MDCK cells.

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  • Mak SK, Kultz D (2004) Gadd45 proteins induce G2 / M arrest and modulate apoptosis in kidney cells exposed to hyperosmotic stress.

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  • Ferraris JD, Dmitrieva NI (2007) Cellular response to hyperosmotic stresses.

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  • Whilst the luminal fluid in the descending limb becomes increasingly hyperosmotic down the length of the limb, the fluid in the ascending limb becomes increasingly hypotonic, as sodium, potassium and chloride are being removed with the aid of the Na+ / K+-2Cl - cotransport system in the apical membrane.

    Conservapedia - Recent changes [en]

  • These data demonstrate that Sp1 has an important role in the basal expression of SPAK, and Sp1 and NF-κB have important roles in the transcriptional regulation of SPAK expression under hyperosmotic conditions.

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  • Fig. 7B, hyperosmotic medium significantly increases NF-κB

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  • Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), are multi-factorial diseases typically associated with relapsing diarrhea, which is caused by increased paracellular permeability of the intestinal epithelial lining and an intestinal hyperosmotic environment

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  • Here we report significantly increased SPAK expression levels in hyperosmotic environments, such as mucosal biopsy samples from patients with Crohn's disease, as well as colon tissues of C57BL / 6 mice and Caco2-BBE cells treated with hyperosmotic medium.

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  • Our results additionally demonstrate that NF-κB and Sp1 transcription factors are essential for regulation of SPAK expression under hyperosmotic conditions.

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  • Eichinger L (2007) STATc is a key regulator of the transcriptional response to hyperosmotic shock.

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