from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. the condition of being hypertonic
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. Same as hypertonia.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. (of a solution) the extent to which a solution has a higher osmotic pressure than some other
- n. (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypertonic
They list such benefits as alleviating pain and reducing inflammation; reducing hypertonicity of muscles; improving joint and muscle function; and reducing and relieving skin irritation, cutaneous lesions with neurodermatitis and psoriasis.
In addition to muscle weakness, many children have spasticity or hypertonicity in the muscles of the weaker side.
Microarray profiling of wild type worms exposed to non-lethal hypertonicity identified a suite of genes that were also regulated by infection.
Mutin M, Woo SK, Kwon HM, Tappaz ML (2004) Transcription factor tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) which transactivates osmoprotective genes is expressed and upregulated following acute systemic hypertonicity in neurons in brain.
We show that hypertonicity triggered an early, NFAT5-independent, genotoxic stress-like response with induction of p53, p21 and GADD45, downregulation of cyclins, and cell cycle arrest.
This interpretation is consistent with the finding that cells lacking the chaperones Hsp70 and Hspa4l / Osp94, whose induction by hypertonicity is NFAT5-dependent, have defects similar to those of NFAT5
Our results show that hypertonicity elicited an early, NFAT5-independent, genotoxic stress response and cell cycle arrest in proliferating lymphocytes, which was followed by an NFAT5-dependent phase in which cells induced osmoprotective gene products, downregulated genotoxic stress markers and reactivated the cell cycle.
Effect of hypertonicity on cyclin induction by mitogens or T cell receptor activation in NFAT5 − / − T cells.
We also show that pathologic hypertonicity levels, as occurring in plasma of patients and animal models of osmoregulatory disorders, inhibited the induction of cyclins and aurora B kinase in response to T cell receptor stimulation in fresh NFAT5
We were interested in analyzing how the deficiency of NFAT5 in proliferating cells affected hypertonicity-regulated processes such as the induction of genotoxic stress-like responses and the cell cycle.
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