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“The tax extracted from the produce of the land, ranging between 10% and 50%, thus became known as kharaj or land-tax.”
“He does not tell us about other taxes being imposed on dhimmi citizens, who must pay at least two other kinds of taxes in ideal Islamic states, namely the jiziyah (poll-tax) and kharaj (land-tax).”
“A prominent instance of extracting kharaj tax from dhimmis comes from Prophet's conquest of the rich and prosperous Jewish outpost of Khyabar, 70 miles north of Medina, in 628 CE.”
“Conversion also led to progressive thinning of dhimmi population, which gradually reduced earnings from the kharaj and jiziyah taxes.”
“Drawing from these examples of the Prophet, the second caliph Omar formulated the kharaj taxation, which was resolutely implemented in pre-colonial Islamic states.”
“Hence, after plundering the movable assets and enslaving the women of Khaybar, the rest of the Jews were allowed to stay in the possession of their lands on the condition of paying half of the produce as tribute (kharaj tax).”
“He increased central control of the collection of agricultural taxes (kharaj), the main source of Abbasid revenue, and led several campaigns against the Byzantines in Anatolia.”
“Umar established the system of Islamic taxation by which Jews and Christians, as People of the Book (Ahl al-kitab), paid a special poll tax (jizya) and a land tax (kharaj), as a form of tribute in return for being allowed to practice their faith.”
“Some 150 km from Mumbai, Srinivas Joshi, an IIT alumnus, does his kharaj ka riyaaz in Pune in between taking care of his father Pandit Bhimsen Joshi.”
“The deep resonance of his electrifying elaboration in the lower octave during his signature 'laraj-kharaj ka kaam' was equally matched by Anoushka in alternative octaves.”
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