American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. Any of various compounds consisting of a sugar, usually ribose or deoxyribose, and a purine or pyrimidine base, especially a compound obtained by hydrolysis of a nucleic acid, such as adenosine or guanine.
- n. biochemistry an organic molecule in which a nitrogenous heterocyclic base (or nucleobase), which can be either a double-ringed purine or a single-ringed pyrimidine, is covalently attached to a five-carbon pentose sugar (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA). When the phosphate group is covalently attached to the pentose sugar, it forms a nucleotide.
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. (Biochem.) A type of molecule found in all living organisms, present mostly in chemically combined form as a component of nucleic acids, and also in smaller amounts in free form, consisting of a pentose sugar bound to a purine or pyrimidine base; two types of nucleoside, ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside, are present. The most common bases present in nucleosides are adenine, cytosine, uracil, guanine, and thymine, and to a lesser extent hypoxanthine and other bases are found. The most commmon ribonucleosides composed from these bases are called adenosine, cytidine, uridine, and guanosine. The forms esterified with orthophosphoric at the 5-position of the pentose are called nucleotides. The nucleotides form the monomer units which are combined into DNA and RNA, which carry the genetic information required for reproduction in all known organisms.
- n. a glycoside formed by partial hydrolysis of a nucleic acid
“Abacavir Sulfate Tablets are used in combination with other medications to control HIV infection and is included in the ARV class of drugs known as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.”
“The drug is included in a class of drugs known as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and the tablet is a preferred form because of its ease, accuracy and convenience of dosing, according to the company.”
“Didanosine works by reducing the growth of HIV. It belongs to a class of medications called nucleoside analogues.”
“It's a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or an NRTi, in AIDS speak.”
“Then why does no one call G proteins motors, despite the fact that they harness the energy from hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate to cause a conformational change by the same mechanism seen in myosins and kinesins?”
“All three drugs are known as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs, or NNRTIs.”
“I had to work out the determination of the independent specific activities of the sugars and bases which I did by treating the nucleosides with nucleoside phosphorylase and hypoxanthine to exchange for the base to be analyzed.”
“In looking for a way to designate the ring face of a simple ring compound such as G6P or of the two rings of a nucleoside, or of fused ring compounds such as sterols, we realized that a universal method could be devised using the established rules for numbering the atoms of rings as contained in standard chemical handbooks15.”
“- 1995: Two new classes of anti-HIV drugs, also targeting replication, are approved: protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.”
“In addition, the RBC analyst believes Gilead's Emtriva will continue to dominate the market for NRTIs, or nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.”
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