from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- adj. Obstructing or closing natural openings or passages of the body.
- n. An obstruent medicine or agent.
- n. Linguistics A sound, such as a stop, fricative, or affricate, that is produced with complete blockage or at least partial constriction of the airflow through the nose or mouth.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway, causing turbulence; the generic term of plosive, fricative and affricate
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- adj. Causing obstruction; blocking up; hindering.
- n. Anything that obstructs or closes a passage; esp., that which obstructs natural passages in the body.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- Obstructive; impeding.
- n. Anything that obstructs; especially, anything that blocks up the natural passages of the body.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. a consonant that is produced with a partial or complete blockage of the airflow from the lungs through the nose or mouth
If I'm correct about terminal obstruent devoicing continuing in the region, then they never did speak Old High German as we usually think of it note that terminal obstruent devoicing is one of the criteria for distinguishing MHG from OHG.
This led to terminal obstruent devoicing spreading to the rest of the continuum, and I suspect that þd may also have originated with the Franconian node though this is little more than speculation.
For instance, in the prehistory of Modern Persian, apocope introduced word-final clusters of obstruent or nasal + r.
My transcription is the standard followed by both Szczurowski 1954 and Patkanyi 1963, in which g is understood as a voiced obstruent of unknown/indeterminate value and many perhaps most scholars interpretet it as dental [d] or even interdental fricative [D]!
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