“By using a genetic screen, the group, led by Charles M. Rice, head of the Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, identified a human protein, called occludin, that makes mouse cells susceptible to the virus.”
“Immunofluorescence studies revealed that hypoxia resulted in disrupted continuity of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (Zo-1) staining with significant gap formation.”
“Expression of claudin 4, claudin 18, and occludin was significantly lower, and activation of JNK and ERK signaling pathways was significantly increased in 2CLP monolayers, relative to sham monolayers.”
“We further demonstrated that although all compounds induced protein kinase A-dependent expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin only pCPT-cAMP slightly enhanced paracellular barrier functions.”
“The discovery of occludin, however, has changed that.”
“To further establish occludin's role as a required entry factor, the group showed that human liver cells naturally express high levels of occludin, and that by silencing its expression, they could give these once highly susceptible liver cells the ability to completely block infection.”
“They found that in the case of two of the proteins, occludin and CD81, only the human versions worked; for SR-BI and CLDN1, the human and mouse versions did an equally good job.”
“(claudins and occludin) with the cell cytoskeleton.”
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