Definitions
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License
 n. A graph used in the harmonic analysis of spectra, time series etc.
Etymologies
Examples

Update: The relevant section of Stoica says that the estimates of the Fourier coefficients through the periodogram are inconsistent and do not converge with N, but behave as a random variable.

Now Mann estimates his spectrum using Thomson's multitaper method  Stoica did not discuss this methodology; the purpose of the multitaper method is to reduce the variance of the estimate, so probably it's less bad than the periodogram, but still the whole procedure, whatever it is, doesn't sound promising.

Following added above: The relevant section of Stoica says that the estimates of the Fourier coefficients through the periodogram are inconsistent and do not converge with N, but behave as a random variable.

Powerspectral density estimated with the Lomb periodogram of the temperature inferred from the deuterium concentrations in the Vostok East Antarctica ice core.
Pelletier [2002] on Temperature Autocorrelation « Climate Audit

For each periodogram, we identify a period, possibly several periods, whose spectral values are sufficiently distant from the mean of the distribution.

We count how many maximal spectral values are higher than the maximal spectral value of the corresponding periodogram on the original genome.

Distances near zero are overrepresented, and the corresponding peak has been taken from the periodogram (this peak is on the plot for the ideal distribution).

Then, we compute the periodogram of the histogram using the FFT of the corresponding series (in practice, we used the function spec. pgram of the R language).

Namely, given a periodogram, we consider all spectra that are local maxima, compute the distribution of these spectra, and extract those periods that are associated to spectra lying on the queue of the distribution, that is at least

Comparison of periodogram peaks against the null model
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