American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. An electronic sensing device used to detect electromagnetic energy of a wide range of frequencies and intensity levels.
“When attached to the new high-gain photomultiplier tubes and strung into the array of amplifiers, pulse-height analyzers, and scalers that emerged from the Rad Lab and Los Alamos, then and only then did the scintillator and Cerenkov radiation became part of the material culture of postwar physics.”
“4The continuity of technology traced from Dagmar Pettersson's version of the scintillation counter in 1923 to Karlik's 1933 counter equipped with a photocell and Blau's 1945 detector endowed with photomultiplier is striking.”
“• This coherent emission of bioluminescence (having the characteristics of a \ "bio-laser\" emission) was demonstrated by using high technology and methodology, such as a photomultiplier, that is able to determine the Poissonian Photocount Statistics of a \ "biophoton emission\" and the hyperbolic-like relaxation of \ "delayed luminescence\" by analyzing the \ "biophoton emission\" and the”
“Blau was the first to use nuclear emulsions to detect neutrons by observing recoil protons and she also worked on the development of photomultiplier tubes.”
“Blau teamed up with B. Dreyfus in combining the use of a photomultiplier tube to a scintillation screen for the measurement of alpha ray sources. 3 As the references to Kara-Michailova's and Karlik's work show, the driving force in designing the device was Blau.”
“Her new concerns were the "wide range of applications" and the possibilities the photomultiplier scintillation counter offered for "quick industrial measurements.”
“In 1949, he was appointed director of the Radiation and Solid State Laboratory at New York University's Physics Department. 18 The zenith of the photomultiplier era came with the work of Kallmann's student Robert Hofstadter, who left Princeton University to work with Kallmann in New York.”
“Carrying over her knowledge of medical physics to the Radium Corporation, Blau designed a photomultiplier scintillation counter for medical use.”
“In the scientific literature, there was no other previous reference to such a device for the detection of radioactive emissions. 8 During the war, Samuel Curran and W. Baker had assembled a detector of alpha particles using a photomultiplier, but their report was classified as part of the Manhattan Project and in collaboration with the Radiation Laboratory in California.”
“Karlik replaced the microscope used in the early type of the scintillation counter attached directly to the scintillation screen with a photocell that Blau eventually turned into a photomultiplier. 6”
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