American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. A small, cone-shaped organ in the brain of most vertebrates that secretes the hormone melatonin. Also called epiphysis, pineal body, pineal organ.
- n. anatomy A small, pinecone-shaped endocrine gland found near the centre of the brain that produces melatonin.
GNU Webster's 1913
- adj. (Anat.) a glandlike body in the roof of the third ventricle of the vertebrate brain; -- called also
pineal body, epiphysis, conarium. In some animals it is connected with a rudimentary eye, the so-called pineal eye, and in other animals it is supposed to be the remnant of a dorsal median eye.
- n. a small endocrine gland in the brain; situated beneath the back part of the corpus callosum; secretes melatonin
“Our conclusions from these experiments were that Geller was right in suggesting that darkness induces alcohol consumption in rats, and that the pineal gland plays a major role in this darkness-induced alcohol preference.”
“Blum, J. H. Merritt, R. J. Reiter, and J. E. Wallace, A possible relationship between the pineal gland and ethanol preference in the rat, Current Therapeutic Research 15 1973: 25-30; R. J. Reiter, K.”
“Synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan, melatonin is produced in the pineal gland which Descartes thought was the seat of the human soul and starts to flow when it gets dark, making you tired, and making you go to sleep.”
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“Blum, J. E. Wallace, and J. H. Merritt, Effect of the pineal gland on alcohol consumption by congenitally blind male rats, Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcoholism 34 1973: 937-39.”
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