Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. The systematic management of plants by methods designed to secure improved types. The two resources for plant-improvement are selection and hybridization. The former (see
artificial selectionand methodical selection, under selection) may be practised upon ‘chance seedlings’ which show desirable characters, as a few heads of wheat in a field, or upon the best individuals from plots grown under conditions favorable to desired variations. The best seeds of the chosen individuals are sown to produce ‘mother-plants,’ and from the best seeds of approved mother-plants a centgener (see centgener, 2) is grown, upon which and its offspring (see nursery stock) selection is practised till a variety is fixed. In place of seedling selection, ‘bud selection’ is practised in case of planta propagated by cuttings, the best branches or other propagules being chosen. Hybridization (see hybrid, n.) serves more or less to combine the desirable qualities of two types, but the great majority of hybrids are worthless, or when not worthless unstable, so that selection must still be practised to secure permanent useful varieties. Plant-breeding aims at some specific end, for example, the removal of an undesirable character, as the beard of wheat, or the enhancement of a valuable quality, as sugar content in the sugar-beet, or the combination of two or more desirable qualities in the same variety, as earliness or good quality with large yield.
“The aim of this Australian-funded project is to speed up the development of advanced, more robust sorghum crops through the use of advanced biotechnology – in particular a plant-breeding process known as marker-assisted selection”
“He conducts plant-breeding research and writes in Salina, Kansas.”
“We're saying this is just another plant-breeding technique," says Eric Flamm, deputy director of the FDA's Office of Biotechnology.”
“Using plant-breeding technology, a specific Monsanto patented soybean variety will then provide high levels of beta-conglycinin, a naturally occurring texture and flavour improving compound.”
“But for a geneticist, a DNA altered through classical plant-breeding methods does not differ from a DNA altered through biotechnology.”
“For 50 years, everything from sweet tomatoes to hybrid corn has come through classical plant-breeding methods, transforming the crops 'genetic characteristics and hence their DNA.”
“Less dramatic but more immediately practical plant-breeding needs are the fine-tuning of today's varieties.”
“All in all, the Sorghum Conversion Program has become one of the most successful plant-breeding programs ever; a model of achievement for crop scientists everywhere and with every crop.”
“At the same time, new and expensive plant-breeding technologies are being used by commercial, multinational seed companies.”
“She worked for the Rodale Research Center, specializing in amaranth germplasm and taxonomy, and began plant-breeding and selection work for improved grain varieties.”
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