from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. A normal gene that has the potential to become an oncogene.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. A gene, that promotes the specialization and division of normal cells, that becomes an oncogene following mutation
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. a normal gene that has the potential to become an oncogene
Sorry, no etymologies found.
The RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and Hirschsprung's disease.
The crucial implication of the Varmus and Bishop experiment was that a precursor of a cancer-causing gene—the “proto-oncogene,” as Bishop and Varmus called it—was a normal cellular gene.
In the laboratory, we call this the six-degrees-of-separation-from-cancer rule: you can ask any biological question, no matter how seemingly distant—what makes the heart fail, or why worms age, or even how birds learn songs—and you will end up, in fewer than six genetic steps, connecting with a proto-oncogene or tumor suppressor.
They had found activated versions of the src proto-oncogene in Rous sarcoma virus.
Activation or overexpression of a proto-oncogene see below promotes the transformation of a cell from normal to a cancer cell.
Capecchi, M.R. Disruption of the proto-oncogene int-2 in mouse embryo-derived stem cells: a general strategy for targeting mutations to non-selectable genes.
How about when the final gene mutation in the proto-oncogene occurs?
The viral promoter or other transcription regulation elements in turn cause overexpression of that proto-oncogene, which in turn induces uncontrolled cellular proliferation.
In contrast, in slowly-transforming viruses, the virus genome is inserted, especially as viral genome insertion is an obligatory part of retroviruses, near a proto-oncogene in the host genome.
In proliferating cells, pol III transcription is stimulated by the proto-oncogene product c-Myc and the mitogen-activated protein kinase Erk, both of which bind to TFIIIB.
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