“The exact chemical changes occurring during the alkaline boil have not yet been verified; but in a somewhat oversimplified manner, the following changes could be deduced to happen: the hemicellulose which are largely made up of mixed polysaccharides are converted to their soluble simple sugars; saponifiable gums and waxes are saponified into soluble soaps; and, unsaponifiable oils are emulsified by these soaps and the wetting agent.”
“Under this heading should also be included stearines produced by submitting distilled fat to hydraulic pressure, the distillates from e from unsaponifiable matter, cocoa-nut oleine, a bye-product from the manufacture of edible cocoa-nut butter and consisting largely of free acids, and palm-nut oleine obtained in a similar manner from palm-nut oil.”
“The materials in the above class require to be carefully examined for the presence of unsaponifiable matter, lime salts and other impurities.”
“_Pongam oil_, obtained from the beans of the pongam tree, which flourishes in East India, has been suggested as available for the soap industry, but the unsaponifiable matter present would militate against its use.”
“In this way the distillate is much clearer than by the ordinary process, and is almost odourless, while the amount of unsaponifiable matter is only about 1.2 per cent.”
“The unsaponifiable matter naturally present as cholesterol, or phytosterol, ranges in the various oils and fats from 0.2 to 2.0 per cent.”
“_ -- This sounds somewhat incongruous, as mineral oil is entirely unsaponifiable.”
“The presence of cholesterol and phytosterol may be detected by dissolving a small portion of the unsaponifiable matter in acetic anhydride, and adding a drop of the solution to one drop of 50 per cent. sulphuric acid on a spot plate, when a characteristic blood red to violet coloration is produced.”
“The residue, dried in the oven at 100° C. until constant, is the "unsaponifiable matter," which is calculated to per cent. on the oil.”
“The last traces of solvent remaining in the flask are removed by gently warming in the water-oven, and the flask cooled and weighed, thus giving the amount of unsaponifiable matter.”
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