from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition.
- adjective Of, relating to, or associated with the uvula.
- adjective Linguistics Articulated by vibration of the uvula or with the back of the tongue near or touching the uvula.
from The Century Dictionary.
- Of or pertaining to the uvula: as, uvular mucous membrane; uvular movements. Made with the uvula: said of r when produced by vibration of the uvula instead of by that of the tongue-tip, as commonly in parts of France and Germany and elsewhere.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English.
- adjective (Anat.) Of or pertaining to a uvula.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
- adjective anatomy Of or relating to the
- adjective phonetics Of a sound,
articulatedwith the uvula.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- adjective of or relating to or associated with the uvula
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
I shd think saying it with no final /t/ wd be as pretentious as using a uvular r for the word.
As a recap, I had come to a couple of major revelations on PIE that diverge from the "mainstream" but problematic view:One: The unlikely phonological system can finally be rationalized by turning palatal stops to plain ones and plain stops to uvular ones while shifting phonation to a contrast between creaky and plain voice rather than plain versus breathy.
I however consider myself to be anglicizing the whole name, but I certainly agree that saying it with no final /t/ wd be as pretentious as using a uvular r for the word.
Just as I've blogged before, I still advocate uvular and creaky-voiced phonemes to help rebalance the system and bring it in line with what we currently understand about phonology and its tendencies.
Likewise then, we might posit that *ker- is underlyingly an athematic root *qēr- both with an update of plain *k to uvular *q, and athematization of this root à la Jasanoff.
So both uvular stops (the original "non-palatal series" of *k, *g and *gʰ) and *h₂ (a uvular fricative1) colour *e to *a in the same fashion.
I would expect a French or German speaker to use a uvular R at the beginning of the family name, a dental L, N and D, and a clear L in the first name, where English speakers would have an approximant R, alveolar L, N, and D, and a dark L.
And now I will confess some important technical issues concerning the aforementioned uvular proposal for Proto-Indo-European PIE.
We can extend this same rule to uvular stops as well.
So that being said, is it too much of a stretch to wonder if perhaps pre-IE was inspired by these languages from the neighbouring Caucasus to adopt uvular phonemes?