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“Therefore, the Chinese incorporation of Yunnan should first and foremost be credited to the Mongol conquest, a result of long-term conflicts between China and Central Asian powers, and to some extent to the globalizing European world-system.”
“Wallerstein contends that the modern world-system emerged 500 years ago. 87 Janet L. Abu-Lughod, in search of the roots of the European world-system, has found another world-system that existed between 1250 and 1350.88 Frank and Gills's belief in the existence of a 5,000-year-old world-system has been met with the controversy over whether a world-system existed before 1250.89”
“Generally speaking, the cowry's long-term existence, therefore, was the result of the SSR that connected Yunnan closely with the Indian Ocean trade structure. 84 Moreover, its dramatic disappearance from Yunnan was, to a large extent, the result of an expanding European modern world-system into the Indian Ocean.”
“Has there been only one world-system, the one that began with the sixteenth century?”
“Native ethnic groups had coexisted there, creating a kind of world-system in which they clashed, fought, adapted, and borrowed cultural elements from each another.”
“The expansion of the European world-system and the Japanese 1715 regulation both helped the Chinese economic incorporation of Yunnan.”
“Note 89: For world-system theories and debates, see Andre Frank and Barry K. Gills 1996, and many articles in Review. back”
“In this sense, the case of Yunnan seems to affirm the 1250 – 1350 world-system.”
“Or could the 1250 – 1350 world-system be pushed back earlier, since the Yunnan trade is ignored in Abu-Lughod's research?”
“Thus, Yunnan's case contrasted with the incorporation of the American southwestern frontier by a modern European world-system, which, as Thomas Hall has pointed out, greatly influenced the Southwestern frontier but did little to affect the modern world-system. 221”
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