Q9: A Svedberg (symbol S, sometimes Sv) is a non-SI physical unit used in ultracentrifugation. It is named after the Swedish physicist and chemist Theodor Svedberg (1884-1971), winner of the Nobel prize in chemistry in 1926 for his work in the chemistry of colloids and his invention of the ultracentrifuge.
The sedimentation rate or co-efficient of a particle or macromolecule is computed by dividing the constant speed of sedimentation (in m/s) into the acceleration applied (in typically in the millions of gravities) is cancelled by the viscous resistance of the medium (normally water) through which the particle is moving. The result has the dimensions of a unit of time and is expressed in svedbergs. One svedberg is defined as exactly 10-13s.
Q13. supplant = replace; eggplant = aubergine
Q4. This clue might have been a little easier if I had given the original Russian names – Laika (barker) and Belka (squirrel). Laika was, famously, the only passenger on Sputnik 2; Strelka and Belka followed on Sputnik 5.
No provision was made for Laika to return to earth (and, in fact, original Soviet accounts, which had her surviving for several days, were subsequently admitted to have been false; instead, she suffered a cruel death probably from stress induced by the acceleration into orbit; a heartbeat of almost 3 times the normal rate was recorded before her death). By the time Sputnik 5 was launched, a method of safe return had been figured out, and a puppy of one of its two passengers was subsequently given to President Kennedy as a gift.
So we have answers to only five of these questions to date (#2, #3, #5, #11, and #16).
That still leaves eleven questions unanswered. Some hints - 1 and 13 are wordplay kinds of clues; 6, 12, and 15 have to do with literature; 8, 10, and 14 are popular-culture based; 4, 7, and 9 - science, space, and math, thought not necessarily in that order.