from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition.
- transitive verb To make a loan translation from (a word in another language).
from The Century Dictionary.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English.
- transitive verb See 2d
calk, v. t.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
- noun A word or phrase in a language formed by
word-for-wordor morpheme-by-morpheme translationof a word in another language.
- verb transitive To
adopt(a word or phrase) from one language to another by semantic translationof its parts.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- noun an expression introduced into one language by translating it from another language
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
Ringbom also suggests that misspellings, borrowings and coinage are transfer of form while calque is transfer of meaning.
Somehow I have a feeling that конъюнктурный in this case is a calque from the English conjecture
Somehow I have a feeling that конъюнктурный in this case is a calque from the English conjecture, in the sense that the previous editors presumed to be able to second-guess how Dostoyevsky's text would have looked were he to have written it at the time of republication, somewhat like those "plain text" editions of Shakespeare.
2. You don't seem to have paid attention to the word "calque" in my comment.
This is borne out by empirical research (e.g Olsen 1999) CLI researchers tend to classify Lexical transfer as misspellings, borrowings, coinage and calque.
The word "bushmeat" is a word-for-word translation or calque of the French phrase viande de brousse.
Dr. G, in the NT as in the Septuagint, it's regarded to be a calque from Hebrew and Aramaic.
I have heard that “are you coming with?” is a calque of German “kommst du mit?”
That is to say, Sumerian Utu-zi 'Life-breath of the sun' would have become a partial calque Ut(a)-napishtim which would be reinterpreted by scribes and priests to mean 'he found (uta-) life-breath (napishtim)' (nb. the replacement of Sum. utu 'sun' with Bab. ūta 'found') and thus back into Sumerian with the reformulated Zi-ud-sura 'Life of long days', now implying a character who has found immortality.
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