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The chilean woodstar, slender-billed finch, and tamarugo conebill are threatened species.
Pampa del Tamarugal National Reserve, 1,023 km2 in size, is one of the key areas for the conservation of the threatened tamarugo conebill (Conirostrum tamarugense).
Typical species are considered the yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), the bicolored conebill (Conirostrum bicolor), the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), the great-tailed grackle (Cassidix mexicanus), the spotted tody-flycatcher (Todirostrum maculatum), the rufous crab-hawk (Buteogallus aequinoctialis), the crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus), the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) and the arboreal snake (Corallus hortulanus).
Birds include species such as orange winged parrot (Amazona amazonica), white-necked heron (Ardea cocoi), rufous crab-hawk (Buteogallus aequinoctialis), striated heron (Butorides striatus), semi-palmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), great egret (Casmerodius albus), green kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana), bicolored conebill (Conirostrum bicolor), greater ani (Crotophaga major), little blue heron (Egretta caerulea) and many others.
Mangroves of this ecoregion are also very important for several migrant birds including ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia), green-backed heron (Butorides striatus), and bi-colored conebill (Conirostrum bicolor) and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) that use them as feeding and resting places from August through April during their extraordinary intercontinental journey.