from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • Apart from outside of, or beyond the mind; independent of mental apprehension.


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  • Hence we find certain relations that do not introduce anything in extramental reality, but only in reason.

    Medieval Theories of Relations

  • If we take anti-realism to be the view that (a) nothing in extramental reality corresponds to our relational concepts and (b) nothing is related independently of the activity of the mind, it is not hard to see why most medieval philosophers would reject it.

    Medieval Theories of Relations

  • If we return to the passage just quoted from Auriol, we can see that, immediately after describing relations as a sort of ˜interval™ (intervallum), he proceeds to deny the existence of any such intervals in extramental reality.

    Medieval Theories of Relations

  • But insofar as the latter are things existing in extramental reality, they are outside the order of sensible and intelligible being.

    Medieval Theories of Relations

  • Thus, even if there is no real or extramental property in Socrates that accounts for his being thought about by Simmias, we must still conceive of this situation as if there were one and, as it were, project this property onto Socrates.

    Medieval Theories of Relations

  • As we shall see, this does not mean that Ockham and others deny that there are extramental grounds for our relational concepts or even that things can be related by their foundations independently of the mind.

    Medieval Theories of Relations

  • And yet, despite their possession of this concept, medieval philosophers explicitly deny the existence of anything in extramental reality exactly corresponding to it.

    Medieval Theories of Relations

  • It appears that a single thing, which must be imagined as some sort of interval (intervallum) existing between two things, cannot exist in extramental reality, but only in the intellect.

    Medieval Theories of Relations

  • Following Aristotle, the medievals divide extramental beings into substances and accidents, a division which they take to be both exclusive and exhaustive (since it is given in terms of a contradictory pair of properties, namely, being in a subject vs. not being in a subject) (Cf. Categories 1, 1a20-1b6).

    Medieval Theories of Relations

  • Obviously, however, there are not distinct things in extramental reality serving as the relata of the relation of self-identity, much less two properties by which such relata are related.

    Medieval Theories of Relations


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  • It starts as a union placental,

    Persists as invisible tendril,

    But twins, so they say,

    May dwell far away

    And share in a way extramental.

    July 1, 2017