from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition.
- noun A monolayer of carbon atoms having a hexagonal lattice structure and constituting a basic structural element of graphite, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.
- noun organic chemistry Any
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonhaving the structure of part of a layerof graphite.
- noun inorganic chemistry An arbitrarily large-scale, one-atom-thick layer of graphite, an
allotropeof carbon, that has remarkable electriccharacteristics.
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
A single carbon layer of the graphitic structure can be considered as the final member of the series naphthalene, anthracene, coronene, etc. and the term graphene should therefore be used to designate the individual carbon layers in graphite intercalation compounds.
Here, we report the production of a new graphene nanostructure-which we call a graphene nanomesh-that can open up a bandgap in a large sheet of graphene to create a semiconducting thin film.
IUPAC compendium of technology states: "previously, descriptions such as graphite layers, carbon layers, or carbon sheets have been used for the term graphene ... it is not correct to use for a single layer a term which includes the term graphite, which would imply a three-dimensional structure.
The term graphene should be used only when the reactions, structural relations or other properties of individual layers are discussed. "
So they can travel in graphene much better than other materials.
Graphene was discovered 2004 by Geim and Novoselov, and graphene is essential a single atomic sheet of carbon atoms, as you described, and when you stack these sheets up, you get graphite, which was well-known before this.
So graphene is essentially the basic building block.
It's similar to the stuff on your pencil, the graphite in there, but graphene is only one atom thick.
So the electrons behave in graphene as if they have zero mass.
So the electrons in graphene behave as light waves and don't scatter the same way as electrons in regular materials.