from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. The characterization of the chromosomal complement of an individual or a species, including number, form, and size of the chromosomes.
- n. A photomicrograph of chromosomes arranged according to a standard classification.
- transitive v. To classify and array (the chromosome complement of an organism or a species) according to the arrangement, number, size, shape, or other characteristics of the chromosomes.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. The observed characteristics (number, type, shape etc) of the chromosomes of an individual or species.
- n. A record of such characteristics, usually photographic.
- n. (genetics) A group of individuals or species that have the same chromosomal characteristics.
- v. To investigate or record such characteristics
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
DNA is bundled inside cells as chromosomes; a karyotype is a representation of all of the chromosomes in a cell.
Evans MI, Klinger KW, Isada NB, Shook D, Holzgreve W, McGuire N, Johnson MP: Rapid prenatal diagnosis by fluorescent in situ hybridization of chorionic villi: an adjunct to long term culture and karyotype.
Cancer Cytogenetics Laboratory: tissue biopsies and bone marrow aspirates for karyotype and SNP array.
Serge: "This is impossible if parents have different karyotype."
From genetical standpoint, speciation is transition from one karyotype norm to another.
It is also conceivable that the Homo sapiens karyotype could have independently arisen from different hominid ancestors elsewhere on earth.
This is impossible if parents have different karyotype.
And if parents have the same karyotype, this is not a speciation at all.
So this is the only loophole to overcome meiotic barrier between species and produce a new karyotype which sometimes became the basis for new species.
S: "Nowdays, species are identified by karyotype, and phylogeny by molecular biology."