from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. See flatworm.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. Any flatworm of the phylum Platyhelminthes
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. [⟨ NL. Platyhelmintha.] A member of the Platyhelmintha, in any sense; a flatworm, as a cestoid, trematoid, turbellarian, or nemertean.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. parasitic or free-living worms having a flattened body
In contrast to their mammalian hosts, platyhelminth (flatworm) parasites studied so far, lack conventional thioredoxin and glutathione systems.
In contrast, the free-living platyhelminth Schmidtea mediterranea (Class Turbellaria) possesses conventional and linked thioredoxin and glutathione systems.
We examine platyhelminth genomes and transcriptomes and find that all platyhelminth parasites (from classes Cestoda and Trematoda) conform to a biochemical scenario involving, exclusively, a selenium-dependent linked thioredoxin-glutathione system having TGR as a central redox hub.
We also provide experimental evidence that alternative initiation of transcription and alternative transcript processing contribute to the generation of TGR variants in platyhelminth parasites.
TGR has been recently validated as a drug target for schistosomiasis and new drug leads targeting TGR have recently been identified for these platyhelminth infections that affect more than 200 million people and for which a single drug is currently available.
Little is known regarding the genomic structure of flatworm TGRs, the expression of TGR variants and whether the absence of conventional thioredoxin and glutathione systems is a signature of the entire platyhelminth phylum.
Platyhelminth parasites possess a unique and simplified redox system for diverse essential processes, and thus TGR is an excellent drug target for platyhelminth infections.
Schistosoma mansoni (a platyhelminth)  Phylogenetic comparisons of putative Hirudo innate immune response genes present within the Hirudo transcriptome database herein described show a strong resemblance to the corresponding mammalian genes, indicating that this important physiological response may have older origins than what has been previously proposed.
Mushroom bodies are prominent neuropils involved in the processing of multiple sensory inputs as well as associative learning in the insect, platyhelminth, and annelid brains.