from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. A Roman siege device consisting of a movable screen protecting the besiegers' approach to a wall.
- n. A cover formed by the overlapping shields of besiegers and held over their heads.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. A genus of tortoises which formerly included a large number of diverse forms, but is now restricted to certain terrestrial species, such as the European land tortoise (Testudo Græca) and the gopher of the Southern United States.
- n. A cover or screen which a body of troops formed with their shields or targets, by holding them over their heads when standing close to each other. This cover resembled the back of a tortoise, and served to shelter the men from darts, stones, and other missiles. A similar defense was sometimes formed of boards, and moved on wheels.
- n. A kind of musical instrument. a species of lyre; -- so called in allusion to the lyre of Mercury, fabled to have been made of the shell of a tortoise.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. Among the ancient Romans, a defensive cover or screen which a body of troops formed by overlapping above their heads their oblong shields when in close array.
- n. A shelter similar in shape and design to the above, employed as a defense by miners and others when working in ground or rock which is liable to cave in.
- n. In medicine, an encysted tumor, which has been supposed to resemble the shell of a turtle. Also called talpa.
- n. [capitalized] In herpetology, the typical genus of Testudinidæ, of widely varying limits with different authors, and much confused with Cistudo.
- n. In anatomy, the fornix: more fully called testudo cerebri. See cerebrum.
- n. In ancient music, a species of lyre: so called in allusion to the lyre of Mercury, fabled to have been made of the shell of the sea-tortoise. The name was also extended in medieval music to the lute.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. a movable protective covering that provided protection from above; used by Roman troops when approaching the walls of a besieged fortification
- n. type genus of the Testudinidae
Interestingly, the word testudo also comes from the Latin word for a protective shelter used for Roman soldiers heads, similar to a tortoise shell, so that could be the answer as well.
Finally, the derivation of the word testudo itself comes from the Latin word for a protective shelter used for Roman soldiers heads, similar to a tortoise shell.
Now, Roger makes no mention whatever of "testudo," while Roland says:
It is worthy of notice also that just at the close of this chapter, Gilbert mentions a swelling called "testudo," a gland-like, gaseous (_ventosa_) tumor, usually solitary and found in "nervous" localities, like the joints of the wrist and hand.
Screamed.] [Footnote 4: The Latin 'testudo' formed of the shields of soldiers held over their heads.] [Footnote 5: 1883 to 1848 inclusive.
The quietly reasonable senator Menenius (Brian Cox) urges restraint, but his close friend the military leader Caius Martius (Ralph Fiennes) gives the crowd a tongue-lashing, and the police, their wall of shields resembling a Roman testudo, drive the mob away.
The scientific name for turtles, comes from the Latin testudo, which means tortoise.
A few groups of amphibians include more than one endemic species, such as the microhylids Rhombophryne testudo, Scaphiophryne goettliebi, the mantellids Mantella crocea, M. cowani, and Mantidactylus domerguei; and the rhacophorids Boophis laurenti and B. microtympanum.
Here are the photos of that: cardboard testudo....
Because Caesar's self-serving screeds were the first literary text pupils read in my day we all had to learn a huge amount about military tactics, the Roman army's structure and, of course, that never to be forgotten tortoise - testudo, testudinis f.