“Spain (1516) and emperor (1519), thus uniting in his person the hereditary possessions of the House of Austria and German, as well as the old domains of the House of Burgundy in the Low Countries -- uniting moreover the Spanish monarchy with Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, the northern part of Africa, and certain lands in America, Francis I inaugurated a struggle between France and the House of Austria.”
“The war continued in Italy and the Low Countries without striking events, but Richelieu's policy was of continual war as the best occupation for the nobles.”
“He made himself master of Calais, Ardres, and Amiens, and married Isabel Clara Eugenia, the daughter of the Spanish King, who brought him as her dowry the Catholic Low Countries and Franche-Comte, and thus renewed the war with Holland.”
“Low Countries (then subject to the House of Hapsburg) lost one hundred and sixty-eight convents, abbeys, or priories.”
“Dürer went to visit him immediately on his return from his famous journey to the Low Countries in 1519.”
“But how this came to be applied to intrusions into France and the Low Countries by single Hur - ricanes or flights of three to six is one of those mys - teries of wartime nomenclature and pilot vocabu - lary.”
“As member of the Council of State of the Low Countries he was the most valued counsellor of the regent, Margaret of Parma; apropos of this it must be remembered that when leaving the country Philip II recommended his sister to refer all important affairs to a council of three, one of whom should be Granvelle.”
“The influence of the movement, however, extended beyond the Languedoc, and was particularly successful in Germany and the Low Countries where the troubadours were known as minnesingers—literally, ‘lady-singers’, although here the word carries the meaning of an idealized or archetypal woman.”
“Against the advice of the regent, despite faithful Granvelle, in spite of the pope, who exhorted him to clemency, he dispatched the Duke of Alva to the Low Countries on a punitive expedition (1567).”
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