Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. One of the members of a secret political society called the Carbonari, formed in the kingdom of Naples during the reign of Murat (1808-14) by republicans and others dissatisfied with the French rule. They were originally refugees among the mountains of the Abruzzi provinces, and took their name from the mountain charcoal-burners. Their aim was to free their country from foreign domination. After having aided the Bourbons in the expulsion of the French, the organization spread over all Italy as the champions of the national liberal cause against the reactionary governments. At one time the Carbonari numbered several hundred thousand adherents. They were concerned in the various revolutions of the times until crushed out by the Austrian power in Italy. About 1820 they spread into France, and played an important part in French politics until the revolution of 1830.
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. A member of a secret political association in Italy, organized in the early part of the nineteenth centry for the purpose of changing the government into a republic.
“Looking about them for the causes of this reserve, some of his colleagues thought him a "carbonaro," others an Orleanist; there were others again who doubted whether to call him a spy or a man of solid merit.”
“Is it for an artist to conspire, and be carbonaro, and kiss books, and, mon”
“Emperor and king, jacobin and carbonaro, alike cherished him.”
“There too, I suppose, brooding over old wives 'tales about freedom, and so forth, he contracted his carbonaro, chimerical notions for the independence of”
“While among the mountains, I was for a good while quite alone, except for occasional chat with the contadine, who wanted to know if Pius IX. was not _un gran carbonaro!”
“_carbonaro_, chimerical notions for the independence of Italy.”
“M. Gillenormand half turned his head, saw Theodule, and went on: — “When one reflects that that scoundrel was so vile as to turn carbonaro!”
“director" to Lélia, with a carbonaro attitude of political revolutionary and free-thinking _illuminé_.”
“When one reflects that that scoundrel was so vile as to turn carbonaro!”
“While among the mountains, I was for a good while quite alone, except for occasional chat with the contadine, who wanted to know if Pius IX. was not un gran carbonaro! ” a reputation which he surely ought to have forfeited by this time.”
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