from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. boldness or freedom in speech; the seeking of forgiveness for such speech
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. Boldness or freedom of speech.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. In rhetoric, frankness or boldness of speech; reprehension; rebuke.
We doubt whether the word parrhesia pleased Cleon, but it must have pleased
The word parrhesia, however, is to be found neither in Pindar, nor in Aeschylus and Sophocles, and first appears in Euripides 'Hippolytus (line 422; performed in 428 B.C.) and Ion (lines 672, 675; of uncertain date).
And it is such a speech as is elsewhere called parrhesia, -- that is, a freedom and liberty in the declaration of the truth conceived.
That spiritual confidence and authority available to the average believer was confirmed in Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, where I learned that boldness comes from the original Greek word, parrhesia, meaning "outspokenness; unreserved utterance; freedom of speech; with frankness, candor, careful courage; and the opposite of cowardice, timidity or fear."
In parrhesia, the speaker chooses "truth instead of falsehood or silence, the risk of death instead of life and security, criticism instead of flattery and moral duty instead of self-interest and moral apathy".
On Foucault's reading, the worker who criticises his boss uses parrhesia.
Yugo KovachWinterborne HoughtonDorsetNick Cohen's piece ("Let the law save whistleblowers, not silence them", Comment) highlights the whistleblower's dilemma – how do we strive to encourage parrhesia ("free" or "true" speech) and prevent the damaging consequence of wrongdoing or malpractice in the workplace while at the same time protecting those who speak up and challenge the hierarchy?
We want to encourage parrhesia-the Greek concept of fearless speech Foucault discusses.
The 12-year-old from Kingston, Jamaica, showed no mercy in demolishing words like "" daedal '' (intricate) and "" parrhesia '' (frank speech).
The Berkeley lectures deal with the ancient ideal of “truthful speaking” (parrhesia), regarded as a central political and moral virtue.
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