Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A common name for many processes by which a photograph may be made to afford a plate-matrix from which can be taken prints in ink corresponding to the original of the photographic image. These processes depend upon the property, possessed by potassium bichromate and analogous chemicals, of rendering insoluble, under the action of light, gelatin or some similar body with which they are compounded. By applications of this property, varying according to the process, a picture or design can be produced on a metal surface, and the blank places etched out with acid; or a matrix in relief can be formed, from which an electrotype plate can be made in ordinary ways. In general, the term photo-engraving is limited to a relief-block or -plate produced by photographic means for printing in an ordinary printing-press, to the art of making such blocks, and to prints from them; while the term photogravure is commonly applied to a photographically engraved plate in intaglio from which prints may be taken in a copperplate-press, to the art of making such an incised plate, and to a print from it. In the Gillet process a zinc plate coated with asphaltum is exposed beneath a negative, and those portions unchanged by light-are dissolved. The zinc is then etched. Photographs are reproduced in the form of half-tone plates for use in the printing-press by several methods, all of which depend upon breaking up the surface of the picture by dark lines in regular series. A gelatin film on which such a series of lines has been photographed is placed between the sensitized surface which is to receive the impression and a positive picture. The resulting print will consist of the subject appearing in half-tone on a ground of lines, and from it a typographical matrix is prepared in the usual ways. (For an example of a half-tone plate, see cut under
dekadrachm.) Also called photographic engraving, photographic-process printing, photographic process. See photoetching(Gillet process), and compare heliotypyand photogravure.
- n. A print or plate made by photography and developed by etching for use on a type-printing press.
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. The process of obtaining an etched or engraved plate from the photographic image, to be used in printing; also, a picture produced by such a process.
- n. an engraving used to reproduce an illustration
“It will be seen that this process may be used with advantage instead of that of photo-engraving with bitumen, in cases where it is not advisable to use acids.”
“Practically all book illustrations, as well as those in catalogues and periodicals of all kinds, are made by some method of photo-engraving.”
“All methods of relief plate photo-engraving come under two general heads: "Half-tone" and "line engraving," the latter being very generally known as "zinc etching.”
“Zinc etching is the simplest method of photo-engraving and should be thoroughly understood before one begins to inquire into the intricacies of the half-tone process.”
“A well-equipped photo-engraving establishment must have all these screens, and all of them in many different sizes.”
“Photography is the basis of all the mechanical processes that come under the general head of photo-engraving.”
“Hand presses are a necessity in all photo-engraving shops, and with these several "proofs" of each plate are printed in order that the customer may judge of the quality of the plate.”
“Practically all things may be reproduced successfully by photo-engraving, but the vast majority of subjects that go to the photo-engraver are either photographs or drawings.”
“Second: From zinc or half-tone plates made from drawings -- generally designated as "photo-engraving".”
“Drawings for photo-engraving, 266. for the blacksmith, 172. shading and coloring, 277-288.”
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