Definitions

from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  • n. Any of various tropical trees and shrubs of the genus Rauvolfia, especially R. serpentina, of southeast Asia, the root of which is the source of tranquilizing alkaloid drugs such as reserpine.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

  • n. Any of several small trees and shrubs, of the genus Rauwolfia, that yields materials of medical use
  • n. Any of a group of alkaloida extracted from these trees

from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • n. A genus of gamopetalous plants of the order Apocynaceæ, the dogbane family, tribe Plumerieæ, and type of the subtribe Rauwolfieæ.

from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.

  • n. any of several alkaloids extracted from the shrub Rauwolfia serpentina
  • n. any shrub or small tree of the genus Rauwolfia having leaves in whorls and cymose flowers; yield substances used medicinally especially as emetics or purgatives or antihypertensives

Etymologies

Variant of New Latin Rauvolfia, genus name, after Leonhard Rauwolf (1535-1596), German botanist.
(American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)

Examples

  • I say, get medicine back under traditional scientific authority -- the science of all men everywhere that has incorporated such foreign discoveries as rauwolfia, L-dopa and acupuncture without the accompanying bogus voodoo ideologies and superstitions.

    Mail Call: Ancient Healing Arts

  • At about the same time, a second class of “tranquilizers”—the rauwolfia alkaloids or reserpine, which was marketed as Serpasil by Ciba Pharmaceutical entered practice, and they were followed by the development of such antidepressants as iproniazid and imipramine.

    The Mad Among Us

  • For high blood pressure, the root of rauwolfia vomitoria has been a staple in the African pharmacy for centuries.

    Boise Weekly

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  • RAUWOLFIA ROOT (Rauwolfia serpentina)
    Latin: Rauwolfia serpentina
    Sanskrit: Sarpaghandha
    African: Numerous (R. vomitoria species)
    Chinese: Lu fu mu (various species)
    English: Rauwolfia / Indian snakeroot

    WHAT IT DOES: Rauwolfia root is bitter in taste and cooling in action. It lowers blood pressure, tranquilizes the mind, and promotes sleep.

    RATING: Red, due to safety issues.

    SAFETY ISSUES: Use only under the guidance of a trained physician or herbalist in proper dosage. Do not use in pregnancy, breastfeeding, or depression. May exacerbate symptoms of Parkinson's Disease. Do not combine with alcohol, barbiturates (Pfeifer et al., 1976), SSRIs, blood-pressure lowering agents such as beta-blockers, unless under guidance.

    STARTING DOSAGE:
    • Tincture (standardized to 1.0% w/v total alkaloids): two to 12 drops three times per day

    Rauwolfia is a reliable blood pressure lowering and tranquilizing agent when used properly. It is used in traditional medicine in India, China, Africa and many other countries. In India and Nepal, it is a common treatment for hypertension and insomnia. Ghandhi took it frequently at night for its calming actions. It warrants a red rating because of its ability to cause severe reactions in overdose, including trembling and collapse. Reserpine, the chief alkaloid in rauwolfia root, seems to be the component responsible for its blood pressure lowering activity. Doctors began using reserpine-based hypertension medicines in the 1950's, but they went out of favor because of the side effects, chiefly depression (Weiss, 1988). Consequently, rauwolfia can only be acquired from a licensed health care professional.

    During the scientific controversy in the 1950's surrounding the question of whether reserpine by itself was superior to the whole rauwolfia root, an Indian physician named Dr. Vakil reviewed all 151 studies available at the time. He came to the conclusion that the combined action of the whole root improves tolerance and reduces the risk of side effects that occur with the use of isolated alkaloids (reported in Weiss, 1988).

    In collaboration with Western doctors, I have used a rauwolfia tincture safely to treat dozens of mild to moderate hypertension patients. We combine 30-50% of a standardized whole root tincture with other mild herbal tinctures known to lower blood pressure, such as linden flowers and mistletoe. In mild cases, we start with two drops three times per day and perform regular blood pressure checks, instructing the patient to increase the dosage until the blood pressure normalizes or they reach the limit in dosage. Patients marvel at how effectively they can control their pressure drop by drop and control the dosage to manage day-to-day variations - especially important in patients with stress related hypertesnion. We stop dosing at well below the levels where side effects usually develop. If it does not sufficiently lower the patient’s pressure, the doctors will prescribe mild Western medication at a lower-than-normal dosage. This combination treatment will often work.

    Rauwolfia root is not curative. Following traditional Ayurvedic procedure, once we have controlled the blood pressure we employ other herbal agents and lifestyle changes to resolve the underlying problems, especially hawthorn. Blood pressure increases are often the result of plaques in the vessels, reduced kidney function and concomitant retention of fluids, and diet errors.

    Research Highlights

    • The mechanism of action of rauwolfia root differs from most other blood-pressure lowering agents, acting on the central nervous system. This may explain why it works when other medicines fail (Weiss, 1988, Shibuya and Sato, 1985).

    • In doses higher than those used for hypertension, rauwolfia alkaloids cause a depletion of norepinephrine, resulting in a tranquilizing effect. Very high doses can cause a loss of coordination (reported in Huang, 1999).

    • Many patients who take medication to control hypertension still have problems with balance, due to difficulties in circulatory regulation. Upon examination of blood-pressure lowering agents available up to 1980, researchers discovered that only Rauwolfia alkaloids and clonidin do not have an undesirable influence on balance (Teichmann and Vogel , 1980).

    • In a Chinese study on 200 patients with moderate hypertension, rauwolfia alkaloids lowered blood pressure was reduced by as much as 30-40% with minimal side effects (reported in Huang, 1999).

    • Rauwolfia root has proven highly effective (89%) in cases of chronic hives (reported in Huang, 1999).

    • The pharmacological effects of resperpine were formerly cause for concern that it might promote breast cancer. However, in epidemiological studies, rauwolfia alkaloids did not increase the risk of breast cancer (Shapiro et al., 1984, von Poser et al., 1990).

    • Rauwolfia root has occasionally proven effective in cases of malnutrition that were unresponsive to high protein or high-energy diets (reported in Huang, 1999).

    The Tillitson Institute of Natural Health (One Earth Herbs)

    Article by the Tillitson Institute of Natural Health, One Earth Herbs

    January 18, 2009


  • Photo of Rauwolfia serpentina

    January 18, 2009

  • Rauwolfia serpentina, or 'snakeroot' is a species of flowering plant in the family Apocynaceae.

    It is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it has the name shégēn mù (Chinese: 蛇根木) or yìndù shémù (Chinese: �?�度蛇木).

    The extract of the plant has also been used for millennia in India — it was reported that Mahatma Gandhi took it as a tranquilizer during his lifetime.

    January 18, 2009

  • ~tropical tree or shrub used as source of various drugs, especially reserpine.

    January 18, 2009