"Informal or ad hoc romanizations of Russian have been in use since the early days of electronic communications, starting from early e-mail and bulletin board systems. Their use faded with the advances in Russian internet that ensured standard support of Cyrillic alphabet, but resurfaced with proliferation of instant messaging, SMS and mobile phone messaging in Russia.
Due to its informal character, there was neither well-established standard nor common name. In the early days of email, the humorous term "Volapuk encoding" (Russian: кодировка "вол�?пюк" or "волапюк", kodirovka volapyuk) was sometimes used.
More recently the term "translit" emerged to indiscriminately refer to both programs that transliterate Cyrillic (and other non-Latin alphabets) into Latin, as well as the result of such transliteration."