from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. A yellow carotenoid pigment, C40H56O2, found with chlorophyll in green plants and identical with lutein.
- n. Any of various related yellow pigments.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. Any of various hydroxy, carbonyl or carboxylic acid derivatives of carotenes.
- n. Alternative name for lutein.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. A yellow coloring matter found in yellow autumn leaves, and also produced artificially from chlorophyll; -- formerly called also phylloxanthin.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. yellow carotenoid pigments in plants and animal fats and egg yolks
Seasonal changes in chlorophyll fluorescence quenching and the induction and capacity of the photoprotective xanthophyll cycle in Lobaria pulmonaria.
The traditional air-aging of flour had a visible side effect: the yellowish flour becomes progressively paler as the xanthophyll pigments are oxidized to a colorless form.
The color of durum wheat, its coarse semolina flour, and dry pasta is due mainly to the carotenoid xanthophyll lutein, which can be oxidized to a colorless form by enzymes in the grain and oxygen.
The modern high-temperature method rapidly inactivates enzymes that can destroy the yellow xanthophyll pigments and cause brown discoloration, and it cross-links some of the gluten protein and produces a firmer, less sticky cooked noodle.
The color comes from xanthophyll and from the carotene pigments that are vitamin-A precursors.
PALMER AND ECKLES: Chemical and physiological relation of pigment of milk fat to carotin and xanthophyll of green plants.
PALMER: The physiological relation of the pigment to the xanthophyll of plants.
PALMER AND ECKLES: The fate of carotin and xanthophyll during digestion.
Ambarsari I, Warner ME, Fitt WK, Dunne RP, et al. (1999) Diurnal changes in photochemical efficiency and xanthophyll concentrations in shallow water reef corals: evidence for photoinhibition and photoprotection.
And at different points throughout the study, they measured photosystem II efficiency, xanthophyll and chlorophyll
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