from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- suffix To cause to be: cheapen.
- suffix To become: redden.
- suffix To cause to have: hearten.
- suffix To come to have: lengthen.
- suffix Made of; resembling: earthen.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- suffix Denotes the past participle form when attached to a verb.
- suffix Denotes a quasi-past participle or participle-like adjective when attached to a noun or verb.
- suffix Can be used to denote the plural form of a small number of English words, the majority of whose etymology goes back to the N-stem (i.e. Weak noun) declension of Germanic languages.
- suffix When attached to certain adjectives, it formed a transitive verb whose meaning is, to make (adjective). Usually, the verb is ergative, sometimes not. The same construction could also be done to certain (fewer) nouns, as, strengthen, in which case the verb means roughly, to give (noun) to.
- suffix Suffix meaning "pertaining to", "having the qualities of", "resembling", "like".
- suffix When attached to certain nouns that are the names of a material, it forms an adjective whose meaning is, made of (noun). This is a formative pattern with many obsolescent remnants. Changes in the form of the root noun, and the dropping of the "e" in the suffix occur. There are also orphan formations whose root has been lost to the current language.
- suffix Used to form the diminutives of certain nouns
- suffix Used to form the infinitive of verbs.
- suffix Used to form the third person plural present tense of verbs.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- A suffix from AS. -an, formerly used to form the plural of many nouns, as in ashen, eyen, oxen, all obs. except oxen. In some cases, such as children and brethren, it has been added to older plural forms.
- A suffix corresponding to AS. -en and -on, formerly used to form the plural of verbs, as in housen, escapen.
- A suffix signifying to make, to cause, used to form verbs from nouns and adjectives; as in strengthen, quicken, frighten. This must not be confused with -en corresponding in Old English to the AS. infinitive ending -an.
- An adjectival suffix, meaning made of; as in golden, leaden, wooden.
- The termination of the past participle of many strong verbs.
Middle English -enen, -nen, from Old English -nian.
Middle English, from Old English.(American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
From Middle English -n, -en, past participle ending of strong verbs (compare Middle English take(n), took, taken: "take, took, taken"), from Old Norse -inn, past participle ending of strong verbs (compare Old Norse taka, tōk, takinn: "take, took, taken"). Replaced the native past participle ending of strong verbs (from Old English -en) in some words, which had weakened to -e or disappeared (compare Southern Middle English do(n), dud(e), ydo : "do, did, done"), but not in others (compare cume(n), com, ycume: "come, came, come"). (Wiktionary)
From Proto-Germanic. (Wiktionary)
from Middle English -(e)nen, -(e)nien, from Old English -nian, from Proto-Germanic *-inōnan. Cognate with Old Norse -na. (Wiktionary)
Middle English, from Old English -en, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz; suffix meaning "made of, consisting of, having the qualities of" applied to nouns to form adjectives. Akin to Old High German -īn, Latin -īnus. See -ine. (Wiktionary)
From Middle English, from Old English -en, from the neuter form of -en4. (Wiktionary)
From Middle English -en, a blending of Old English infintives -an and -n, from Proto-Germanic *-anan. (Wiktionary)