A case for holding or carrying arrows, or the arrows carried in said case. May also refer to a collection of surfboards or skateboards.
Finally, it is a term that a fundamentalist Christian sect uses to describe their movement to have as many babies as possible -- Full Quiver Theology, based on the reading of Psalm 127: 3-5: "Children are a heritage of the Lord, the fruit of the womb a reward. As arrows in a soldier's hand, so are the sons of the young. Blessed is the man who has filled his quiver with them."